International scientific papers

International scientific explorations of Two-stage mechanical oscillator

The Two-Stage Mechanical Oscillator, an invention, of academician Veljko Milković, has been acknowledge all across the globe and numerous scientific papers and studies have been published. These scientific papers deal with studying the principle of work of the two-stage mechanical oscillator, development of mathematical models and analyses of different applications.

The largest expansion of scientific exploration of the two-stage mechanical oscillator has been noted in Indian university centers, as chosen topic of scientific exploration, but also as a part of regular student activities under the supervision of teaching staff. The references cited in these scientific papers are mostly originated from our websites ( , All the referred theoretical papers are available on this website as well in sections Theory & Math and Experiments & Measurements.

The list of scientific papers displayed on this page is in ordered by years of publication and it's updated regularly.



Study and design of pendulum assisted hand water pump - Rejsha Khoteja, Sandhya Mishra, Sarad Niraula, Kshitij Kunwar, Nirajan Ghimire, Krishna Prasad Shrestha, Pratisthit Lal Shrestha

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University Dhulikhel, Nepal

The designed pump consists of a normal hand pump and a pendulum; held together into a mechanism by a metal structure. This pendulum pump aims to provide a solution for lifting water manually, which requires a large human effort when operated continuously. It is based on a very simple principle of the pendulum, lever two-staged oscillator mechanism. With the help of this principle, the reciprocating motion of the piston in the pump is obtained using the oscillation of a pendulum. The pendulum pump was designed using different calculations and was fabricated adding frame, springs, pendulum to normal piston pump for the actual experimentation. The project purely deals with the mechanical aspect of the pendulum pump, where an experimental approach is implemented to conclude.


Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis of a Variable-Length Pendulum Water Pump - Godiya Yakubu, Paweł Olejnik, Jan Awrejcewicz

Department of Automation, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,, Lodz University of Technology, Poland

The pendulum, lever, and piston assembly are modeled by a separate dynamical system and then joined into the many degrees-of-freedom dynamical systems. The present work includes friction while studying the system dynamics and then simulated to verify the system’s harmonic response. The study showed the effect of the pendulum length variability on the whole system’s performance. The vertically excited parametric pendulum with variable length in the system is established, giving faster and longer oscillations than the pendulum with constant length. Hence, more and richer dynamics are achieved.



Fabrication of Pendulum Machine for Generation of Electricity through Oscillation Motion - Dhawal Bodhankar, Ankit Chauvhan, Santosh Rahangadale, Gaurav Uprikar, Sangram Deshmukh, prof. Swapnil Choudhary

Wainganga College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur, India

Energy requirement of the world is increasing day by day for the reason that of utilization of energy at a generously proportioned size with the population enlargement. This paper is about generating power by using a move backwards and forwards in such a way that when it swings the mechanical energy is generated and it is converted into electrical energy by pendulum and is stored in a battery.


Design and mahematical modelling of pendulum based hand pump - Shubham Kumar, Moshin Alam, Satya Prakash Singh, Mohit Kuntal, mr. Jiyaul Mustafa

School of mechanical engineering, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, India

The objective of this project is to decrease human effort to pump water and save electricity. With the help of link mechanism and spring force we can able to convert oscillatory motion to linear motion. So, the energy consumption of this system will be lowest. Use of pendulum based pump can reduce human effort, increase efficiency and save time. Its eco-friendly and maintenance and production cost is also less.



Optimum paramethric analysis of mechanical oscillator for pumping application - Rejin Balachandran, Nandu A., Nirmla M. S.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, Mar Ivanios Vidyanagar Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Various analyses like length ratio, weight ratio and efficiency test were conducted with the fabricated oscillator. Oscillator is constructed with a telescopic pendulum which facilitates the adjustment of length. The pivot position as well as the weight ratio of the lever is varied throughout the experiment and the optimum location and weight ratio corresponding to maximum discharge is found out. Maximum efficiency of oscillator utilized forpumping the water corresponds to 92.07%.


Experimental investigation of Energy Production by Using Pendulum - Than Than Htike, Han Lwin Soe, Kyaw Myat Moe

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yangon Technological University, BPI, Yangon, Myanmar

This paper deals with energy production from gravity. Moreover, this paper is also intended to gain the useful and green energy by using gravity effect. In this paper, two-stage mechanical oscillator with gear mechanism, cam mechanisms and dynamo is fabricated to conduct the experiment. The process of this machine is that when the pendulum is applied with the input energy, the pendulum oscillates on the free moveable pivot point and this oscillation effect can move the lever arm to produce the second oscillation motion as same as seesaw arrangement system. Meanwhile, at the other edge of the lever arm, the output can be available as impact effect. This effect can be used as the output energy to drive the other mechanisms such as hammer, water pump, electric motor, and generator for the useful energy.



Design and development of pendulum operated water pump - prof. Prashant B. Shelar, Avinash D. Kambale, Akash N. Patil, Rajkumar M. Khandare, Abhishek H. Sachane, Shubham S. Gavali

Department of mechanical engineering, D.Y. Patil College of Engineering and Technology, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India

The research done fill today is concentrated on the working and effectiveness of the mechanism only. Considering all of the advantages of the mechanism it was decided to use it for lifting water with the help of reciprocating pump such that the input to the mechanism is given by humans which is comparatively less than the effort applied by humans to lift water using hand pumps directly.



Overview of motorised pendulum - Mr. Nitin G. Patril, Prof. Avinash Namdeo

Swami Vivekanand College of Engineering, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

This paper discusses the significanceof a pendulum pump which can be used as a complementarydevice for pumping water and is made to replace hand pumps. One vitalqualityof a pump with a pendulum is that the work is alleviated or in easyterms it makes effortrather easier when is compared with a conventionalhand water pump. It is due to this underlined qualitywhich enables the pendulum pump to be used as an efficient mode in the irrigation of lesserlots, water-wells and can also be used in extinguishing fires even by agedcitizensand children.


Fabrication of Pendulum Pump - Anurag Anand, Devanshu Jhakal, Rahul Sharma, Rupesh Deshbhratar

Department of mechanical engineering, Thakur College of Engineering, Mumbai, India

The main importance of a pendulum pump is that the initiation energy for starting the process of pumping, swinging of the pendulum, is considerably minimum when compared with the work required to operate hand pumps. The most important feature of this is: The effect of creating the free energy in the device made of: 1. Oscillating pendulum-lever system, 2. System for initiating and maintaining the oscillation of the Pendulum


Design and fabrication of gravity inertial device - S. Muruganantham, S. Ganesh Kumar, S. Jagatheswaran, P. Karthikeyan, D. Praveen

Department of mechanical engineering, Nandha Engineering College, Erode - 52, Tamilnadu, India.

This project is indented to develop a free energy device that works on gravity. A simple mechanism with new mechanical effects represents the source of clean energy. This gravity machine has only two main parts: a massive lever and a pendulum. The interaction of the two-stage lever multiplies input energy into output energy convenient for useful work.



Electrical energy generation by using pendulum motion - Rajat Wairagade, Sonu Tagwan, prof Sandeep Mude

Karmavir Dadasaheb Kannamwar College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

There area lot of availability of mechanical energy in the environment. This mechanical energy can be converted into other form of energy like electrical energy. Here we developed a pendulum motion based power generator that sustains its motion with low maintenance providing voltage output peaks from a reciprocating mechanical structure. The reciprocating effect of our device is enhanced by using gear mechanism that is composed of shaft with a dynamo. his paper is a platform of developing a sustainable, low maintenance system to generate electrical energy.


Electrical energy harvesting by using pendulum power generator - Mithun Gajghiye, Mayiuri Boke, Akshay Kelwadkar, prof. Sandeep Mude

Karmavir Dadasaheb Kannamwar College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

The pendulum generatordeals with the power generation from the mechanical energy that has been wasted in many day today real time applications. The pendulum setup has been made, that is whenever it has been kicked off the kinetic energy of ball makes the pendulum to oscillate, generates the electrical energy. We can implement the pendulum based power generation system in real time application wherever the vibration produced. We can implement a pendulum based power generation system in such dynamic application we can generate power from it.


Design and fabrication of hand water pump operated by a pendulum - Rajeh Kumar Sahu, Rakesh Kumar Das, Supriya Dip, Sidartha Mohapatra

Department of mechanical engineering, Gandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Gunupur Rayagada Odisha, India

Hand water pump is the best solution to lift the water without using electricity. But it requires a large human effort which is not feasible for long time. When we need the supply of water continuously this is not the best solution to lift water continuously. So Hand water pump with pendulum is the best solution for pumping water without using the hand pump. This is providing alleviation of work, because it is enough to move pendulum occasionally with little finger to pump water, instead of large swing.



Fabrication and analyses on a pendulum pump - Rony K Placid, Steffin George Sam, Amal R.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baselious Thomas 1 College Of Engineering & Technology, Koothattukulam, Kerala, India

This paper discusses the importance of a pendulum pump which can be used as a supplementary device for pumping water and is made to replace hand pumps. One important feature of a pump with a pendulum is that the work is alleviated or in simple terms it makes work rather easier when is compared with a traditional hand water pump. It is due to this underlined feature which enables the pendulum pump to be used as an efficient mode in the irrigation of smaller lots, water-wells and can also be used in extinguishing fires even by old people and children.


Design and Development of Hand Water Pump with a Pendulum - D. Apparao, Y. Sagar

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aditya Institute of Technology and Management, Tekkali, Andhra Pradesh, India

Hand water pump with a pendulum is a very simple solution for pumping water. It provides alleviation of work, because it is enough to move the pendulum occasionally with a little finger to pump the water, instead of large swings. Work is alleviated because easier, long-lasting and effortless use of the hand water pump has been enabled. Input energy for starting the process of pumping, in form of occasional pushing of the pendulum, is much less than with typical hand pumps. The operation of the machine is based on forced oscillation of the pendulum, since the axis of the pendulum affects one of the arms of the two armed lever by a force which varies periodically.


Fabrication of device for generation of energy using two stage mechanical oscillators - Rakesh Chaudhari

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

The purpose of this project is to explain the practical functioning of two-stage mechanical oscillator, i.e. to demonstrate the possibility of practically generation of excess energy in the form of electrical energy by using two-stage mechanical oscillator. Our object is to develop such mechanism which is used in hand pump for rural application with minimum investment. The project would discuss the dynamics of the body when a gravitational force acts upon it.


Single acting piston pump using oscillating motion - Gowrishankar K., Gobinath M., R. Gani

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India

We initialized our project with an objective to reduce the human effort. The purpose of sucking the water from the ground, they were installing the piston pumps on every village. The reason behind the choice of piston pump is due to its less maintenance and less installation cost. But we were planned to replace that reciprocating motion with an oscillating motion. This method may be an already existing one, but the way of application is quite different in our project. Hence according to us by slight modification of an existing piston pump for adapting to the oscillating motioned piston pump, we can obtain the required amount of water with a minimum effort and with a low cost.



Energy conversion phenomenon in implementation of water lifting by using pendulum effect- Prof. Bhane Ajeet Bhagwat, Asst. Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Savitrubai Phule Pune University, SND COE&RC, Yeola, Dist. Nashik, Maharashtra, India

This paper consist of working of reciprocating pump which is driven by a compound pendulum. It provides the energy required to lift the water from a tank placed approximately several meter below the ground level. Basic application of the mechanism will be for watering the garden which will be operated by means of operation opening and closing of entrance gate. Paper consists of basic concept, design of pump and compound pendulum mechanism and fabricationed model. The concept can also be implemented in the rural areas, having the problem of electric supply. We aim at making a prototype for providing some mean for pumping of water by the pump which requires less human efforts, considering cost effectiveness, easy to operate and portable mechanism


Microcontroller Based Performance Study Platform For Two Stage Mechanical Oscillator - S. Meghashyam Reddy, dr S. A. K. Jilani

Department of Electronics and Communication engineering, Mandapalle Institute of Technology and Science, Mandapalle, India

Our project is such an attempt which tested the ongoing research on the over unity power generation based on the experiments of renown Ser-bian inventor VeljkoMilkovic and we intend to specify about how the prototype developed in such a man-ner would throw light into very interesting scientific investigations carried upon invisible energies existing around us.


The Convergence of Parametric Resonance andVibration Energy Harvesting - dr Yu Jia

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Energy harvesting is an emerging technology that derives electricity from the ambient envi-ronment in a de-centralised and self-contained fashion. Applications include self-powered medicalimplants, wearable electronics and wireless sensors for structural health monitoring. Amongst thevast options of ambient sources, vibration energy harvesting (VEH) has attracted by far the mostresearch attention. Two of the key persisting issues of VEH are the limited power density comparedto conventional power supplies and confined operational frequency bandwidth in light of the random,broadband and fast-varying nature of real vibration.



A parametrically excited vibration energy harvester - Yu Jia, Jize Yan, Kenichi Soga, Ashwin A. Seshia

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

In the arena of vibration energy harvesting, the key technical challenges continueto be low power density and narrow operational frequency bandwidth. While the conventionhas relied upon the activation of the fundamental mode of resonance through direct excitation,this paper explores a new paradigm through the employment of parametric resonance. Unlikethe former, oscillatory amplitude growth is not limited due to linear damping. Therefore, thepower output can potentially build up to higher levels. Additionally, it is the onset of non-linearity that eventually limits parametric resonance; hence, this approach can also potentiallybroaden the operating frequency range. Theoretical prediction and numerical modelling havesuggested an order higher in oscillatory amplitude growth


Two-Stage Oscillator for operating a reciprocating pump - Nikhade, G. R., Patil, R.U. and Bansal, S. P.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur, India

This paper presents the conceptual mechanism to run the reciprocating pump by the two-stage oscillator. It provides the energy required to lift the water from a tank placed approximately 2.5 meter below the ground level. Basic application of the mechanism will be for watering the garden which will be operated by means of opening and closing of entrance gate. Paper consists of basic concept, design of pump and two-stage oscillator mechanism and fabrication of the model.

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